Principles of Declaration of Independence
“We have this day restored the Sovereign to Whom all men ought to be obedient. He reigns in heaven and from the rising to the setting of the sun, let His kingdom come.”
— Samuel Adams, As the Declaration of Independence was being signed, 1776 The American union originally was a voluntary union of free and independent republics operating and meeting as the Continental Congress for 5 years under authority of the Declaration of Independence due to the fact that the Articles of Confederation was not signed until 1781 thus creating a permanent covenant between free republics. The US Constitution of 1787 is ‘a more perfect union” but this did not create the union which was originally formed as an alliance for the purpose of the revolutionary war. The principles of the Declaration lays out the principles of the union while the Articles and later the US Constitution was created to execute those principles. JB Which God, Creator and Supreme Judge is written into the Declaration? Note: My understanding of the concept of deism is the belief that God created the universe and then stepped back, and having no further involvement, He only acts providently through His laws. Because of this, deists do not pray. If this is a correct assessment this would not describe Thomas Jefferson according to his Second Inaugural Address where he writes, “..the favor of that Being in whose hands we are, who led our forefathers, as Israel of old, from their native land, and planted them in a country flowing with all the necessaries and comforts of life; who has covered our infancy with his providence, and our riper years with his wisdom and power: and to whose goodness I ask you to join with me in supplications, that he will so enlighten the minds of your servants, guide their councils, and prosper their measures, that whatsoever they do, shall result in your good, and shall secure to you the peace, friendship and approbations of all nations.” 1. Thomas Jefferson ties the Being to the God of Israel. The very God who brought Israel out of the wilderness. Thomas Jefferson’s God is the God of the Bible. 2. Thomas Jefferson knows a God who is still involved in human affairs, providently and personally, therefore, Thomas Jefferson calls on the nation to offer “supplications” to move God on behalf of the nation’s leadership. 3. Thomas Jefferson believes in the power of prayer for invoking the favor of God. 4. As President of the United State, Thomas Jefferson believes that civil magistrates should acknowledge God and encourage a nation to pray to God for divine favor. 5. Praying for rulers, magistrates and leadership is a New Testament mandate which Thomas Jefferson is fulfilling. 6. No body has a perfect interpretation doctrine and this results in interesting Christian debates. One long standing debate in the Christian community is the nature of Jesus. Was he divine or not? Is he part of a Trinity or not ? As a Christian, Thomas Jefferson took a side in a Christian debate. From his letters, Thomas Jefferson did not uphold the miracles of Jesus as being supported by reason. This says he questioned the infallibility of Scripture but this does not remove him from the Christian community just as Jews who believe that Torah is partly spoken by God and part commentary by man continue to serve in the synagogue. Thomas Jefferson participated in the Christian community and he claims a discipleship of Jesus’ teachings. 7. At the end of the day, the voice of Thomas Jefferson is not the deciding voice of America or the final determiner of the form of government and the laws in which we live. This belongs to the majority which Thomas Jefferson would agree in his sense of republicanism. And it is this majority that needs to support the literal words of its founding charter the Declaration of Independence which declares that God is the Creator of our inalienable rights and Supreme Judge of our rectitude, and having been written by Thomas Jefferson, and enacted by undoubtedly Christian signers, the intent and contemporaneous evidence is that God, Creator, and Supreme Judge of the Declaration is the God who brought Israel out of the wilderness, the God of the Bible.
Thomas Jefferson writes “ I am a Christian, in the only sense in which he wished any one to be;sincerly attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence; and believing he never calmed any other.” t/jml -567 1804 version of Thomas Jefferson (bible) being – “for the Use of the Indians,” Notes on the State of Virginia Jefferson supported “a perpetual mission among the Indian tribes,” at least in the interest of anthropology, and as President sanctioned financial support for a priest and church for the Kaskaskia Indians” (resource Wikipedia) 2. Thomas Jefferson would be astounded that you are calling him a demagogue especially since public agents did not run for election but were chosen based on merit and reputation, and only then was the offer of office accepted or declined by the chosen. Thomas Jefferson and George Washington were eager to exit political life because it was very costly and a true personal and financial sacrifice. TJ and GW sent word out not to be chosen for office but being chosen they felt it was their duty to comply. They did not have to resort to demagoguery. Jefferson accomplished a more limited goal in 1804 with The Philosophy of Jesus of Nazareth, the predecessor to The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth. He described it in a letter to John Adams dated October 13, 1813:
In extracting the pure principles which he taught, we should have to strip off the artificial vestments in which they have been muffled by priests, who have travestied them into various forms, as instruments of riches and power to themselves. We must dismiss the Platonists and Plotinists, the Stagyrites and Gamalielites, the Eclectics, the Gnostics and Scholastics, their essences and emanations, their logos and demiurges, aeons and daemons, male and female, with a long train of … or, shall I say at once, of nonsense. We must reduce our volume to the simple evangelists, select, even from them, the very words only of Jesus, paring off the amphibologisms into which they have been led, by forgetting often, or not understanding, what had fallen from him, by giving their own misconceptions as his dicta, and expressing unintelligibly for others what they had not understood themselves. There will be found remaining the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man. I have performed this operation for my own use, by cutting verse by verse out of the printed book, and arranging the matter which is evidently his, and which is as easily distinguishable as diamonds in a dunghill. The result is an octavo of forty-six pages, of pure and unsophisticated doctrines.
Jefferson never referred to his work as a bible, and the full title this 1804 version was, The Philosophy of Jesus of Nazareth, being Extracted from the Account of His Life and Doctrines Given by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John; Being an Abridgement of the New Testament for the Use of the Indians, Unembarrased [uncomplicated] with Matters of Fact or Faith beyond the Level of their Comprehensions. (Wiki) “Laws of Nature and Nature’s God” Declaration of Independence Hooker says that at the creation God instituted a natural law to be observed by all creatures and this by solemn injunction. 60 Apostle Paul 1″…for when Gentiles who don’t have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves, in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them.” Roman 2:14-15
Florentinus, Institutes “For, indeed, it happens under this law what whatever anyone does for the protection of his body is considered to have been done legally; and as Nature has established a certain relationship among us, it follows that it is abominable for one man to lie in ambush for another.” just.digest.
Pufendorf “The Law of Nature asserts, that this or that Thing ought to be done, because from right Reason it is concluded, that the same is necessary for the Preservation of Society amongst Men.” duties.pref
Thomas Jefferson “I sincerely, then, believe with you in the general existence of a moral instinct. I think it the brightest gem with which the human character is studded, and the want of it as more degrading than the most hideous of the bodily deformities.” m/l640 Grotius “BY THE law of nature, in its primaeval state; apart from human institutions and customs, no men can be slaves; and it is in this sense that legal writers maintain the opinion that slavery is repugnant to nature.” 276 John Locke: “Thus the law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men, legislators as well as others. The rules that they make for other men’s action must, as well as their own…be conformable to the law of nature, i.e. to the will of God, of which that is a declaration…” 160 Hooker says that good follows all things that observe the course of their nature while evil follows that which does not. 85 Cicero “Reason which is in Nature, which is the law of gods and men.” b3.23.de.off Cicero “And further, if Nature ordains that one man shall desire to promote the interests of a fellow-man, whoever he may be, just because he is a fellow-man, then it follows, in accordance with that same Nature, that there are interests that all men have in common. And, if this is true, we are all subject to one and the same law of Nature; and, if this also is true, we are certainly forbidden by Nature’s law to wrong our neighbour.” b3.27 Sidney: “Is not the law of nature a rule which He has given to things? and the law of man’s nature, which is reason, an emanation of the divine wisdom, or some footsteps of divine light remaining in us?” 338 Vattel “If neither of the nations who are engaged in a dispute thinks proper to abandon her right or her pretensions, the contending parties are, by the law nature, which recommends peace, concord, and charity, bound to try the gentlest methods of terminating their differences.” 450 The United States of American is a union of fifty free and independent republics created by, and existing in a compact called “The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America” which is famously know as the Declaration of Independence. This social compact, designed for international impact, properly recognizes the universal law of all nations called the “Law of Nature and Nature’s God” The Law of Nature is the law of equity revealed in such notions as fairness, mercy and justice legislated, adjudicated and executed by an enlightened understanding in the process of reason. Since human reasoning is imperfect and capable of being corrupted by self-interest, passion, and ignorance, it requires the support of Nature’s God and His divine revelation of law found in Scripture; it is the anchor that keeps the ship of state from sinking during tempestuous storms of popular corruption and divine testing. The rule of equity, revealed law, and the atonement which is the restoration of a good conscience by the gift of the Holy Spirit lays the foundation of universal law which by Divine Providence will draw all nations toward greater justice under the universal banner called the Declaration of Independence. Note: Reason is a divine process that makes divine judgments from its tribunal called conscience. This seat of judgment, conscience, judges the external facts and events against the imprint of divine law upon the soul made in the image and likeness of God and this process is called the “Law of Nature”. However, man’s system of reasoning suffers from irregular if not criminal impulses. The remedy to mankind’s potential depravity is a higher law or a standard that will stop man’s fall into corruption. This higher law comes from “Nature’s God”. Human corruptibility is the reason God gave the law to Moses; the law given to Moses is not the perfect law of God (natural law, untainted) but a necessary support to hinder violations of reason impaired by sinful passions, first, by circumcising the heart by inculcating moral law in order to deepen the impressions of existing law thus making the conscience more alert to the image and likeness of God, and secondly, by the fear of God and the fear of civil authority by frequent reminders of the curse of the law which are the penalties and punishments. The threat of punishment is required for the reprobate who’s heart is partially if not completely effaced of all moral sensibilities or original likeness, and therefore, having no natural barrier to criminal and dangerous impulses, the soul joins the criminal element of society. America is founded on the “Law of Nature and Nature’s God”, the law of reason supported by revelation. For the righteous, the law of Moses and of the Apostles is the Engravers tool for restoring the fine etchings of natural justice upon the soul, but for the law breaker, it the source of terror and impending justice. Psalms 7:1-3:” My son, keep my words. Lay up my commandments within you.Keep my commandments and live! Guard my teaching as the apple of your eye. Bind them on your fingers. Write them on the tablet of your heart.” Pufendorf: “for it would suffice plainly to have enjoyn’d Man, consider’d as he was first created by God, that he should love his Neighbour, whereto he was beforehand inclin’d by his own Nature. But how could the same Person be commanded, that he should not kill, when Death had not as yet fall’n on Mankind, which enter’d into the World upon the account of Sin? But now there is very great Need of such a Negative Command, when, instead of loving one another, there are stir’d up so great Feuds and Animosities among Men, that even a great Part of them is owing purely to Envy, or an inordinate Desire of invading what belongs to another. ” preface John Locke: “Besides the Crime which consists in violating the Law, and varying from the right Rule of Reason, whereby a Man so far becomes degenerate, and declares himself to quit the Principles of Human Nature…” f.const. Thomas Jefferson: The moral sense, or conscience,…It is given to all human beings in a stronger or weaker degree…It may be strengthened by exercise…lose no occasion of exercising your dispositions to be grateful, to be generous, to be charitable, to be humane, to be true, just, firm, orderly, courageous &c. Consider every act of this kind, as an exercise which will strengthen your moral faculties and increase your worth.” 431 Law of Nature and Doctrine “the primal law of nature written in INDELIBLE CHARACTERs upon the fleshing tables of sentient creation by the Almighty Law-giver, the supernal Judge who sits on high.” Cordas v. Peerless Transportation Co. 1941 J. Carlin. 111*tortb John of Salisbury states that the general and perpetual voice of men is the sentence of God himself. For that which men learned has come from nature herself, and God being the author of nature, her voice is but his instrument. The apostle Paul spoke of the gentiles who without the law obeyed the law because they were a law unto themselves meaning that acted by the light of reason, where with God illuminated everyone that comes into the world so they could know good from evil.” 76-77 When one uses the word Scripture we mean the Old and New Testament, and therefore the God I am referring to is the God of Bible. Hugo Grotius says in “The Whole Duty of Man According to the Law of Nature” that the law of this God (in Scripture) is not repugnant to human reasoning, and we can extend this to say that since every man shares in this spark of divinity called reason all are held accountable for their actions according to the standard of God’s law – no matter the religion, faith, or creed. Additionally, Thomas Jefferson says that all men by reason can determine right and wrong; however, Jefferson warns that bad doctrine can twist reason and corrupt it, and this warning by Thomas Jefferson is the same warning that the New Testament gives when its says “…watch your life and your doctrine…you could save yourself and your hearers.” Therefore, God’s law, being a support to right reason, can not bend to any doctrine that is not reasonable. However, the good news of the gospels according to the Apostle Paul is that God is working to restore reason to its original innocence. This process is called the atonement. When Paul speaks of the end of the law, even the end of God’s law, he is referring to the restoration of man to his original design, to the law of innocence. Crime is the violation of reason, and by restoring man to the likeness and image of God, the soul becomes incapable of committing crimes because the soul exists through a healed conscience responding to divine impulse. In summery, the law of God and its punishments are for the unreasonable who violate reason are are corrupt while the punishment of the law is of no value to the reasonable who are naturally obedient to natural justice that emanates from the perfect law of God. Positive law from the “Law of Nature” Hooker says that the knowledge of that which man is in reference to himself, and other things in relation unto man, are the principles which are the edicts, statutes, and decrees of the law of nature.” 79 Locke explains that man without government existed in the state of nature and by the law of nature man had a right or necessity to avenge crime in order to terrify others from doing it, but when man left the state of nature and entered into civil society by the creation civil government, this right of vengeance was surrender to a civil magistrate, who was to secured to all members their life, liberty and protection. This is the foundation of the social compact, and to bind the hands of instituted public authority from exacting just punishment is to break the social contact and place its members back into the state of nature were vengeance is the law of the land. However, there is a greater social compact the exists and this a compact is not a compact between man and man but between man and God. Only a few nations can boast of this compact, the first is ancient Israel and the second is the United States of America. Israel, Israel received her land rights as an everlasting covenant that was made between the Lord God and Abram, and then later, the nation of Israel received her social contract at Mt. Sinai from the Lord God who then revealed His laws. Algernon Sidney expresses Israel’s covenanted laws as the law of liberty because it places higher law not only over the passions of the people but also over the passions of princes. The stone tablets of divine law – the law no man could break – placed limits on sovereign authority (monarchy, democratic, republican) thus ending the potential for tyranny which is the ill use of law by despots or the corrupted majority. An example of immutable liberty can be found in the principle law “Do not Steal” and the use of eminent domain. The case law supporting the principle law is King David buying a privately owned threshing floor to be used for a public building, the Temple of Solomon. The owner of the threshing floor feared David and offered to give the threshing floor to the king for free. King David created precedence when He insisted on purchasing it and at a fair price; the sale was a volunteer act. This is just one example of how divine law supports positive law in maintaining the protection of life and property and why ancient Israel was called to be light to the nations. United States, Theocracy means a government where God rules. America is a theocracy according to its social compact, the Declaration of Independence, that declares Americans receives their inalienable rights from a Creator and its moral rectitude from a Supreme Judge of the world. America was established under the “Laws of Nature and Nature’s God.” Its National Motto is “In God We Trust.” Its Pledge of Allegiance declares that it is “One nation under God” and from God Americans receive their liberty and justice. God ruling over the passions of man is the only safe refuge for life, liberty and property against man’s potential depravity, and by extension, the certain misuse of civil authority. Additionally, let us not forget that the English common law that came to America by the colonist incorporated the law of Moses and the Apostles and this supported a unified and homogenous standard of right and wrong that allowed the forging of a federation of fifty free and independent republics called the United States. John Fortescue: ” The laws of England, as far as they agree with, and are deduced form the Law of Nature, are neither better nor worse in their decision than the laws of of all other states or kingdoms in similar cases.” Note: The primary law of nature is justice flowing from the divine fountain and is unconcerned with rebellion; its purpose from the days before Adam is to shape civil statutes in the just management of natural resources See Gen 2:19-20 See Gen.1:28. The secondary law of nature is a response to violations of man’s nature in the image and likeness of God. It is the secondary law of nature that ordains and enacts criminal statutes for the regulation of rebellion against the natural order such as the law code revealed on Mt. Sinai. We can say the law of nature in Eden is the law of reason and its political policies concerned the natural resources of the land according to Genesis 1.:28. It wasn’t until Adam and Evil violated their innate moral sense by stealing the property of Elohim that a new law was required. This law is positive law or municipal law flowing from the secondary law of nature responding to violations of pure nature, such is God’s revealed law to Noah and to Moses. These laws dealt with criminal acts versus the law of Eden which dealt with natural resources.Pufendorf in his preface writes, “And as to what concerns the Commands, there are many which have place in this State of Mankind (fallen state), which seem not to have been necessary in the Primitive State (Eden).” The Institutes of Justinian book 2 offer good examples of the law of nature or the law of the garden. These laws displaying reasonable judgments on the fair and common use of natural resources. Examples of the second law of nature dealing with human depravity and useful can found in Hammurabi law, Hittite law, and law given to Moses.. There is a third law called law of grece or as Pufendorf called it “Moral Divinity”. In his preface to “The Whole Duty of Man…” he describes the law of nature in man’s primitive state in Eden versus the law of nature after the corruption of mankind. He writes, “We are also now commanded by the Law of Nature, To succour those that are in Want. To relieve those that are oppressed. To take care of Widows and Orphans. But it would be to no purpose to have inculcated these Precepts to those who were no ways subject to Misery, Poverty, and Death (in Eden). The Law of Nature now enjoyns us, To forgive Injuries; and, To use our utmost Endeavours towards the promoting of Peace amongst all Mankind. Which would be unnecessary among those who never offended against the Laws of Mutual Society.” Pufendorf effectively highlights the law of the gospel operating outside of Eden and inside a world of suffering. We can tie the law of grace to the work of the Holy Spirit. This law is the law of love that is working actively in the human community in offset the suffering of a fallen world; it God’s way of assisting those who are in need and suffering by those who are being restored natural justice. In summery, man in Eden relied on the law of nature or reason untainted by sin for the work of community development by the fair use of natural resources. Mankind, falling into sin and becoming victims to criminal passions, required new law for the protection of life, liberty and property. For this reason, God gave His law on Mt. Sinai. Restore mankind to perfect liberty, the law of grace was given through Christ. This law are positive mandates in self sacrifice service towards one another. This law is the circumcision of the holy spirit that works as a bridge between God’s innate moral sense and man’s judgment center called the conscience, the tribunal of the soul. The law of grace counsels the soul to overcome criminal passion by self-denial while moving the soul toward self-sacrifice and public service. Right of the Law of Nature John Marshal “the right to contract , and the obligation created by contract….exist anterior to, and independent of society.” Ogden v. Saunders 1827.hiscl499 Discourses I do not advocate human rights but ‘inalienable” rights as granted by the Creator and such rights being limited according to the Supreme Judge of the world. This is the fundamental principle of America’s Declaration of Independence. As a Christian, I agree with Sir William Blackstone in his Commentaries that the Creator of our rights and obligations is the God of Israel,that is, the God of the Bible. God himself has revealed His law to man – His definition of good and evil. Based on this, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is not only flawed but highly dangerous because it lacks an accurate definition of good and evil. It is this standard that guides the police force of the community, and if you fail to have an accurate definition, then public authority will punished the innocent and protect the guilty. You asked how does one train voters? My answer is that this is done in civic classes (or Sabbath classes) which train the youth of the nation to be good citizens. The foundation of this training in a Christian republic is the inculcation of the law of Moses and the Apostles. These are the laws the guide reason in the knowledge of moral rightness. Through knowledge of God’s law one becomes enlightened to the expectations of good leadership, and only then does one know who to vote for and who not to vote based on the “reputation” of candidates who are to teach and uphold the commandments of God. (This is a Jesus’ principle.) Besides building correct moral convictions, every generation needs an intimate knowledge of the organic laws. For America, knowledge of the Declaration of Independence, state, and federal constitutions is required. The principles behind these American charters are rich and historic and a necessary part of citizenship training. Citizenship should be given at birth but given only to those who will uphold the obligations of the social compact. You write,”There are many problems in government around the world, but I don’t think the quality of voters is the cause.” My Response:”It certainly the cause in America. The people are voting in their own tyranny.” Supporting Reason Pufendorf: “Farthermore, though the Will do always desire Good in general, and has continually an aversion for Evil also in general; yet a great Variety of Desires and Actions may be found among Men. And this arises from hence, that all Things that are Good and Evil do not appear purely so to Man, but mixt together, the good with the bad, and the bad with the good.” duties/b1/xi I encourage you to read the 2nd chapter of Sir William Blackstone’s common law reasoning on the law of nature. In summery, all men are under the rule of the law of nature (a divine law created by God), However, reason (for Atheist, Christians and everybody else) is frail and subject to blindness and error. This is the reason God intervened and delivered a Reveal law in order to give “reason” support, a divine compass. An Atheist is an example of someone declaring that they do not need a divine compass in order to guide their reason and that reason alone is sufficient. This violates Biblical and common law jurisprudence not to mention the experience of every man. The law of man’s nature, his process of reasoning, requires divine intervention – a divine compass to guide fallible “reason”. This is of national important because the social compact is based on allegiance. This allegiance requires the citizens to obey and uphold the instituted public authority in exchange for protection from internal and external dangers against life, liberty, and property. This social compact is broken when either party breaks this oath of allegiance which is the agreement of the social compact. Allegiance is broken by the people by disobedience to enacted laws leading to tumults and insurrections, and it is breached by miscarriages of justice or failing in the nation’s defense by the sovereign. Concerning miscarriage of justice, It is imperative that the definition of human rights be accurate, that is, a true definition of good and evil be upheld by sovereign and subject. Only a true definition can sustain and uphold the oath that forms the social compact. It can not be overstated that the “law of nature” or reason is too infallible to stand as an absolute moral rule of the community. If this was otherwise, as William Blackstone says, then no other rule then the law of nature would be required, however, experience tells us differently, and since, the law of nature can not stand on its own, a support must be found. And where must we look but to divine intervention itself. And this is the weakness of Atheism and human doctrine. First, an Atheist, relying solely on the law of nature or reason which is influenced by vice and passion, offers to the community “reason” directed by human impulse as a sole moral guide. Therefore, Atheism does not offer a viable solution when reason can be so corrupted that it is unable to discern right and wrong or acts of evil. In fact, depravity in criminal jurisprudence is “reason” perverted to a nature of wickedness. Wickedness will not judge itself. At this point, when depraved reason has access to the formulation of community laws the result is tyranny toward the righteous and protection to the corrupt. Second, bad doctrine is the cause of “reason” being misled. No one is immune from bad doctrine, not even Christianity, especially when Christians move away from obedience to Revealed law to legislating interpretation of doctrine. Historically, this has been the flaw of Christian jurisprudence that has left a record of tyranny, and yet, this problem goes to all doctrines. They key to supporting “reason” is the Ten Commandment and its case law. These rules are set in stone and they need no interpretation, just sound adjudication. The law of God is God’s answer to a human problem. To those who dwell in the light of reason untainted by human passion the laws revealed by God to man found in Scripture are reasonable and just. These divine laws qualify the institution of the social compact, and is a primary support to the oath of allegiance. In fact, the deliberate violation of the law of nature beyond the standards of revealed law is national suicide; it is the dissolution of the social compact. And when a nation moves deliberately passed the minimum standards of God’s revealed law in the offering of “human rights” that nation is no longer qualified to be nation. It has broken allegiance not only with the citizen but also with God. The result is that Divine Providence intervenes on behalf of divine justice. Based upon this principle, and under the influence of Atheism and bad doctrine, the nations are rapidly moving toward God’s retribution. Those nations that have actively legislation “human rights” in violation of Revealed law are in violation of the law of nature, and they have no standing before God as a viable nation, and their sovereignty as a candle stick will be removed. And when this happens we expect a new compact to takes its place based on true principles in the jurisprudence of law and order. Atonement When one uses the word Scripture we mean the Old and New Testament, and therefore the God I am referring to is the God of Bible. Hugo Grotius says in “The Whole Duty of Man According to the Law of Nature” that the law of this God (in Scripture) is not repugnant to human reasoning, and we can extend this to say that since everyman shares in this spark of divinity called reason all are held accountable for their actions according to the standard of God’s law – no matter the religion, faith, or creed. Additionally, Thomas Jefferson says that all men by reason can determine right and wrong; however, Jefferson warns that bad doctrine can twist reason and corrupt it, and this warning by Thomas Jefferson is the same warning that the New Testament gives when its says “…watch your life and your doctrine…you could save yourself and your hearers.” Therefore, God’s law, being a support to right reason, can not bend to any doctrine that is not reasonable. However, the good news of the gospels according to the Apostle Paul is that God is working to restore reason to its original innocence. This process is called the atonement. When Paul speaks of the end of the law, even the end of God’s law, he is referring to the restoration of man to his original design, to the law of innocence. Crime is the violation of reason, and by restoring man to the likeness and image of God, the soul becomes incapable of committing crimes because the soul exists through a healed conscience responding to divine impulse. In summery, the law of God and its punishments are for the unreasonable who violate reason are are corrupt while the punishment of the law is of no value to the reasonable who are naturally obedient to natural justice that emanates from the perfect law of God. America’s Declaration of Independence says, “…that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights…” This statement offers jurisprudence. Creator Grotius:”Now the creation of the world by God affords a tacit proof of his goodness, wisdom, eternity and power: and the effect of this contemplative knowledge is the offering of honor, love, worship and obedience to God.”195 DialoguesYou write,”The Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations) became a revolutionary act, that embraced the heritage of numerous generations of free-thinkers and policy-makers.” MY RESPONSE: I agree with you that the United Nation’s Declaration is a revolutionary act, it revolted against the wisdom of the ages and instituted a secular innovation of society build upon man as the standard and not God. No nation or organization in history had dared to erect a social institution based on the weakness and fallible nature of man until recent times with the rise of communism. The Medes and Persian, Greeks, Ancient Israel, Rome, Byzantine empire, and early England and American Union recognized a Higher Divine Authority. So the attempt of the United Nation’s Charter as well the EU’s Convention of Human Rights ( following in the footsteps of Lenin, Stalin and Mao) to secularize a state and the standard of criminal jurisprudence is a revolution against the wisdom of the past. I can say the enemies of the United Nation’s Charter would include Prophets of Israel and Jesus and the Apostles, Socrates and Plato of Greece, Cicero and Epictetus of Rome, Bracton and Blackstone of England, and George Washington and Thomas Jefferson of America, all who understood that God rules over the affairs of men. You write,” Equality is stressed there as being one of the most important issues, which could help to arrange the world in a friendly and tolerant organisation.” MY RESPONSE: The United Nations (and the EU Convention) has moved “equality” front and center in their jurisprudence. Future generations will look back to this day and to this principle as the end of life, liberty and property and the source of the global tyranny. Why? Because the UN Charter and EU Convention of human rights are steering the police forces of the nations without an accurate definition of good and evil. The first principle of justice is a correct definition of right and wrong, of good and evil. Only with this definition can “equality” be understood. The goal of law is to eradicate evil not to create equal rights for all. Equal under the laws of God and man is the true principle of equality. On the other hand, the UN Charter and EU Convention is telling the world that the only evil in the world is the lack of “equality” and in their confusion they are moving the police forces of the nations against the law abiding while protecting the lawless. As a student of the common law, I recommend you read Sir William Blackstone’s second chapter of his “Commentaries on the Laws of England. His overview of the nature of law is timeless. And if you hold to his wisdom in this matter you will not embarrass yourself in the archives of history, but by lifting the true principle of man under divine law among your associates your name will be written in glory. All Men Created equal Brutus III 1787 “Is it because in some of the states, a considerable part of the property of the inhabitants consists in a number of their fellowmen, who are held in bondage, in defiance of every idea of benevolence, justice, and religion, and contrary to all the principles of liberty, which have been publicly avowed in the late glorious revolution? 319 Political Liberty
Noah Webster 1787 “But in civil society, political liberty consists in acting conformably to the sense of a majority of the society. In a free government, every man binds himself to obey the public voice, or the opinions of a majority; and the whole society engages to protect each individual. In such a government a man is free and safe.” 53.5dc
History of the Common law page 498 says that early proponents of “learned law“ such as Kent, Story, and others stressed the need to make law predictable. Predictability supported liberty by allowing citizens to know the legal consequences of their actions and to plan accordingly. Mr. Justice Story U.S v. Battiste 1835 “Liberty regulated by law is the underlying principle of our institutions.” Exodus 19.:8 “All the people answered together, and said, “All that Yahweh has spoken we will do.” The liberty of ancient Israel was the right to give “consent” to the laws and form of government they were to live under; this is the definition of liberty – slavery is living under a form of government and a system of laws without one’s consent. God Himself had to gain consent in order to establish His law and covenant. “Being left free, implies that the people should enjoy their own laws.” Hugo Grotius pg138 Rev. Samuel Rutherford: “Because liberty is a condition of nature that all men are born with, and they are not to give it away – no, not to a king, except in part and for the better, that they may have peace and justice for it, which is better for them, hic et nunc.” Lex Rex 66.8 (1) Note: The word ” Liberty” in America’s founding charter requires a political definition: liberty is the right to give consent to the form of government and to the laws under which they live. This is America’s inalienable right of liberty according to their charter. The Declaration declares that America’s liberty is defined by God’s law. Pursuit of Happiness Rutherford “The safety of the people is the supreme law, therefore the king is bound in duty to promote all and every one of his subjects to all happiness.” 122 Brutus III 1787 “It has been observed, that the happiness of society is the end of government.” dc.320 Brutus III “Society instituted government to promote the happiness of the whole, and this is the great end always in view in the delegation of powers.” dc.320 Thomas Jefferson “…The only orthodox object of the institution of government is to secure the greatest degree of happiness possible to the general mass of those associated under it. The events which this work proposes to embrace will establish the fact that unless the mass retains sufficient control over those intrusted with the power of their government, these will be perverted to their own oppression…” m/l618 Thomas Jefferson “A part of my occupation, and by no means the least pleasing, is the direction of the studies of such young men as ask it. They place themselves in the neighboring village, and have the use of my library and counsel, and make a part of my society. In advising the course of their reading, I endeavor to keep their attention fixed on the main objects of all science, the freedom and happiness of man. So that coming to bear a share in the councils and government of their country, they will keep ever in view the sole objects of all legitimate government…” 603 Noah Webster “In the formation of such a government, it is not only the right, but the indispensable duty of every citizen to examine the principles of it, to compare them with the principles of other governments, with a constant eye to our particular situation and circumstances, and thus endeavor to foresee the future operations of our own system, and it effect upon human happiness.” dc129 Thomas Gordon: “In Truth, our whole worldly Happiness and Misery (abating for Accidents and Diseases) are owing to the Order or Mismanagement of Government; and he who says that private Men have no Concern with Government, does wisely and modestly tell us, that Men have no Concern in that which concerns them most…” Socrates says a city should not seek the extraordinary happiness of a single class of people but the greatest possible happiness of the city as a whole. In such a state we should be able to discover justice just as we can discover injustice in the worst governed state. 662 Aristotle “And the good lawgiver should inquire how states and races of men and communities may participate in a good life, and in the happiness which is attainable by them.” b7.xi Cicero; “Moreover, all our thought and mental activity will be devoted either to planning for things that are morally right and that conduce to a good and happy life…” de-off19.vi Vattel “The tranquility, the happiness, the security of the human race, wholly depend on justice, – on the obligation of paying a regard to the rights of others.” 342 Plato via Socrates says that the most righteous and just are the happiest and being the most kingly because he is good king over himself while the most evil and unjust are the most miserable having a tyrannical temper within and is tyranny not only over the state but over himself. Rep.807.1 Aristotle “Now it is evident that the form of government is best in which every man, whoever he is, can act best and live happily.” b.7.2 Aristotle “Now, whereas happiness is the highest good, being a realization and perfect practice of virtue…” pol.b7.viii Note: The Declaration of 1776 is America’s social compact, a legal binding document upon all citizens. The words of the Declaration have legal force with political impact on how public business is done. The “pursuit of happiness” in a legal context can be summed by the Declaration itself when it says, “That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness…” A citizen personal happiness is intrinsically tied to his political happiness which emanates from good law. Lord Bacon speaks of the law of King Henry VII and the happiness of the people when he says, “deep and not vulgar, not made upon the spur of a particular occasion for the present, but out of providence for the future, to make the estate of his people still more and more happy…” Hallam 11
Aristotle “Let us acknowledge then that each one has just so much of happiness as he has of virtue and wisdom, and of virtuous and wise action. God is a witness to us of this truth, for he is happy and blessed, not by reason of any external good, but in himself and by reason of his own nature. And herein of necessity lies the difference between good fortune and happiness; for external goods come of themselves, and chance is the author of them, but no one is just or temperate by or through chance. In like manner, and by a similar train of argument, the happy state may be shown to be that which is best and which acts rightly; and rightly it cannot act without doing right actions, and neither individual nor state can do right actions without virtue and wisdom. Thus the courage, justice, and wisdom of a state have the same form and nature as the qualities which give the individual who possesses them the name of just, wise, or temperate.” pol.7.1
Under God …”endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights…appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions” Declaration of 1776 Sidney: “For this reason Bracton saith, “that the king hath three superiors, to wit, Deum legem, & parliament” (God, law, and parliament) ; that is, the power originally in the law of God as he is a man; to the people that makes him a king, in as much as he is a king: the law sets a measure unto that subjection.” 313
Bracton: “Rex in regno superiores habet Deum & legem” Translation: “In his kingdom the king has these superiors, God and the law.” notes. Sidney 393
American Theocracy Theocracy means a government where God rules. America is a theocracy according to its social compact, the Declaration of Independence, that declares Americans receives their inalienable rights from a Creator and our moral rectitude from a Supreme Judge. America was established under the “Laws of Nature and Nature’s God.” Our National Motto is “In God We Trust.” Our Pledge of Allegiance declares we are “One nation under God” and from God we receive liberty and justice. God ruling over the passions of man is the only safe refuge for life, liberty and property against man’s potential depravity, and by extension, the certain misuse of civil authority. Let us not forget that the English common law that came to America by the colonist incorporated the law of Moses and the Apostles. It laid the foundations of a great theocracy, a union of free and independent republics under God. Another theocracy, biblical Israel was, is and will continue to be a guiding light to the nations. A theocracy, a nation under God, is not to be feared but valued as the coming hope of a better age. What is to be feared is the misuse of civil authority by those that have abandoned the sensible restraints of divine law and who insensibly direct the dangerous and formidable power of civil government according to their irregular passions and superstitions, for example, homosexual rights and abortion. The law of God saves by defining good and evil thereby moving the police powers of the State in a proper direction, protecting the innocent and punishing the guilty. Secular opponents have worked to blacken the eye of theocracy by falsifying history. For example, those who blame Queen Mary’s persecution of Protestants on a theocratic government misdiagnose the problem. It was Queen Mary’s violation of the divine commandments that led to her atrocities in the same way abortion has made the Supreme Court guilty. True theocracy or a “nation under God” is a nation that puts proper and needed restraints on the use of civil authority. It reduces would be tyrants and impassioned zealots under the metes and bounds of sensible law and without this divine restraint history proves we get the misuse and abuse of civil authority like that of Spanish Inquisition, the Salem witch trials, Hitlers burning of the Jews, the crimes of Mao and Stalin and all the tyrants of history who effectively turn civil authority toward the destruction of their own people. Samuel Rutherford says that Theodatius says, “The fundamental laws of the kingdom, inspired by God to temper monarchy with a liberty befitting God’s people, and with equity toward a nation – to withstand the abuse of an absolute power.” 77 One Nation Under God Rev. Rutherford: “When the supreme magistrate will not execute the judgment of the Lord, those who made him supreme magistrate, under God, who have, under God, sovereign liberty to dispose of crowns and kingdoms, are to execute the judgment of the Lord, when wicked men make the law of God of none effect.” 96.2 Right to Alter or Abolish – Declaration of Independence “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government…” Grotius “nor can a band of pirates or robbers ever become a state…” Grotius writes that Cicero believed that “a state is not merely diseased, but entirely destroyed, by the injustice of its component and leading members.” 250 Grotius thinks otherwise of some parts of re Thomas Jefferson penned an immutable principle in the Declaration of Independence stating that government was instituted in order to secure the inalienable rights as granted by the Creator, and in this same document, it declared a rectitude according to the Supreme Judge, and If government fails to uphold such inalienable and divine God given rights, the people have the right, an obligation, to altar or replace that government. One God given mandate of government is to uphold the marriage covenant as a binding agreement between one man and one woman, and this for the right of procreation. If this covenant is allowed to be violated by polygamy, prostitution, homosexuality, bestiality or any other violation of laws of nature and nature’s God then that government entity has lost its sovereignty, its right to rule because it is not fulfilling the mission of its existence. It is the duty of every American to restore the right to rule in America by restoring God’s law. Grotius “nor can a band of pirates or robbers ever become a state…” Grotius writes that Cicero believed that “a state is not merely diseased, but entirely destroyed, by the injustice of its component and leading members.” 250 Grotius writes that Dion Chrysostom compares a dead and lifeless human body by the loss of its animating soul to a a dead political society by the loss of just laws. 249/250 Sidney “The only ends for which governments are constituted, and obedience render’d to them, are the obtaining of justice and protection; and they who cannot provide for both, give the people a right of taking such ways as best please themselves, in order to their won safety.” 512 Federal Farmer 1787 “There are certain unalienable and fundamental rights, which in forming the social compact, ought to be explicitly ascertained and fixed – a free and enlightened people, in forming this compact, will not resign all their rights to those who govern, and they will fix limits to their legislators and rulers…” 256
Grotius “….the law of nature and of nations, founded upon the fear of God, and obedience to his will, is the standard of right which Kings and Sovereign state appeal; a violation or which is regarded as a violation of the divine law.” 195
Note: Grotius connects the law of nature (nations as well) with the standard by which kings and sovereigns appeal as a right to rule. This lays the foundation of the immutable principle of the Declaration that declares that government is instituted to secure inalienable rights of the Creator according to laws of nature and nature’s God. If any government fails to secure those God given rights then the people have a right to alter or abolish government and institute one that can secure those rights. In the same light, if a king or magistrates, or officer of the public trust violates in word or deed the law of nature by which he received his right to rule within the public trust then the people are required by right to remove him who has lost all right which the law of nature had given him.
Locke: “Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slops of human frailty, will be born by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications, and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected.” 199 Rev. Rutherford: ”People are not so easily got out of their old forms, as some are apt to suggest. They are hardly to be prevailed with to amend the acknowledged faults in the frame they have been accustomed to. And if there be any original defects, or adventitious ones introduced by time, or corruption; it is not an easy thing to get them changed, even when all the world sees there is an opportunity for it.” 198 Declaration: “That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.” ” Whatever is constituted and ordained by the principal supreme power can not be altered, suspended or abrogated by any other power, but the same power that ordained may alter, suspend and abrogate its own ordinances.” (instruction to delegates’f/counst Justice Miller “… it is found the occasion and the necessity for recurring again to the great source of power in this country, the people of the States, for additional guarantees of human rights, additional powers to the Federal government; additional restraints upon those of the States.” Slaughter House Cases Note: Thomas Jefferson penned an immutable principle in America’s Declaration of 1776. This principle stated that government was created to secure the inalienable rights as granted by the Creator, and if government failed in securing these rights, it was the duty and obligation of the people to altar or abolish the government and institute such principles that will secure their life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. However, Thomas Jefferson did fall short in this one respect, if government is required to uphold rights granted by the Creator common sense says that the magistrates who executive the laws of government must have a deep conviction in the Creator who granted those rights. On this point alone atheists have no place in civil government. In fact, the only persons who could attain offices of public trust are those who can declare that God is Creator and Supreme Judge and Jesus is our Lord. So when Thomas Jefferson thought the religious oath for government office as unnecessary, he failed in supporting his immutable principle as declared in the Declaration with godly men who could uphold the principle. Inalienable Rights The Declaration of Independence, the founding document of the United States, is America’s social compact and it lays the principles of the American Union. Its principles are timeless and universal and should be agreeable to all nations. In America’s social compact there are no human rights but God granted inalienable rights. This is an life saving concept – an unchangeable God securing to mankind inalienable rights that no person or institution can annul. In contrast, the humanist’s establishment of human rights is subject to the fluctuating passions and opinions of man and are not rights secured by eternal values. They are human rights established by the State under the influence of political activists. They are mutable and alienable because they are rights established not by unchangeable law and justice but upon the caprice of changing opinion under the influence of passion, even rights directed by vice and lust. See Amsterdam – city of human rights and corruption. There is nothing inalienable or safe about human rights created by positive law with man as the standard. Man can be corrupted and in his depravity can institute rights that are not rights at all but are a clear violation of the law of nature and nature’s God. Such rights threaten civilization, for example, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and Pompeii by heavenly fire. The total destruction of these two cities is a warning to all nations of the devastating effects of human rights without divine guidance – human rights granted outside of divine law. Same sex unions,adultery, bestiality not only tests the patience of the Almighty but ushers His effectual judgment upon a nation. The safety of the nation, of the family, and of the individual is only secured by human rights directed by principals of eternal right and justice, by a higher and immutable law over the internal passions and external vices of man and these divine precepts are revealed in Scripture. On the other hand, human rights instituted according to human foibles is folly and the sure undermining of society. James Otis writes, “The same law of nature and of reason is equally obligatory on a democracy, an aristocracy, and a monarchy: Whenever the administrators, in any of those forms, deviate from truth, justice and equity, they verge towards tyranny, and are to be opposed; and if they prove incorrigible, they will be deposed by the people…” f/const “Z” : “..that there ought to be at least, an express reservation of certain inherent unalienable rights, which it would be equally sacrilegious for the people to give away, as for the government to invade.”dc.7 Ideology Reading a law book (recommended form the University of London), it says society is based on its Constitution and on its Ideology. I looked up the definition of Ideology from dictionary.com and it says, “the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group.” This definition sounds just like the definition for religion. In other words, according to this law book, society is based on its Constitution and religion. So America has a choice to make, to be a nation declaring the rights and obligations of a secular religion or a nation declaring the rights and obligations of the Christian religion. Viewing the operations of secular humanism in our Union, all sensible people can say that it has been a failure and is failing in preserving life, liberty, property, decency of culture, and the family. So in order to restore our broken and corrupted public institutions and in order to save our failing society from the ravished of secular humanism, we as nation need to rid ourselves of the secular ideology and restore to prominence in our public councils the truth of Jesus Christ as the essential bond of our social compact. Status of States Declaration of 1776: “…and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.” Declaration – Supreme Judge of the World Locke: “God in heaven is judge. He alone, it is true, is judge of the right.” 208 Declaration: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.” Note: America’s social compact is based an immutable truth. This truth is that rights come not form the people or state but from their Creator. To secure these rights governments are instituted, and if the government of the people fails to uphold God granted rights and obligations, the social compact is breached. The people have two choices, either amend the Constitution and the laws in accordance to the rights guaranteed by God or end the Constitution and laws made under them. This principle is a divine rule that cannot be abolished by any nation on the globe. Divided Nation Thomas Jefferson: “…we shall never give up our Union, the last anchor of our hope, and that alone which is to prevent this heavenly country from becoming an arena of gladiators.” 543 Hamilton in the Federalist Papers explained the dangers of a divided Union. Each nation has its own set of jealousies, agendas, and interests, and these will collide against others nation. This was evidenced on the European continent where France, England, and Spain were always at war. George Washington’s in his Farewell Address says explicitly that our Union is the source of our happiness and safety. In summery, a divided America will be embroiled in commercial competitions, competing armies, and intrigue under foreign influence resulting in continuous conflicts among the States. The solution is not division, but restoration of those principles that made the Union of States possible. This first principle of our Unity is also the first principle of criminal justice which is an accurate definition of good and evil, right and wrong. The Federal Union was founded upon a the common law that instituted the law of Moses, and this law is upheld by our the Declaration of 1776 which declares that God is the Creator of inalienable rights and Supreme Judge of our rectitude. This principle which is American law cannot be left a dead letter. Factions in America may oppose it, but unity requires it. Jesus said no nation can stand divided but will fall, and today America is divided in Christian and Secular camps, and this division will split the American Union unless sensible Americans enforce the legal obligation of its social compact, the Declaration of 1776. Supreme Judge of the world Rutherford “Now certain it is, God only, univocally and essentially as God, is the judge, (Ps75:7) and God only and essentially king, (Ps 58:1; Ps99:1)and all men in relation to him are mere ministers, servants, legates, deputies…” 107 Rutherford. “For only God’s will – not the creature’s – can be the cause why thing are good and just.” 138 Declaration of 1776 “And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.” Cicero “It is, therefore, only a madman who, in a calm, would pray for a storm; a wise man’s way is, when the storm does come, to withstand it with all the means at his command, and especially, when the advantages to be expected in case of a successful issue are greater than the hazards of the struggle. The dangers attending great affairs of state fall sometimes upon those who undertake them, sometimes upon the state. In carrying out such enterprises, some run the risk of losing their lives, others their reputation and the good-will of their fellow-citizens. It is our duty, then, to be more ready to endanger our own than the public welfare and to hazard honour and glory more readily than other advantages.” de.off.83 Rectitude of the Supreme Judge Cicero “We have next to discuss the one remaining division of moral rectitude. That is the one in which we find considerateness and self-control, which give, as it were, a sort of polish to life; it embraces also temperance, complete subjection of all the passions, and moderation in all things. …that it is inseparable from moral goodness; for what is proper is morally right, and what is morally right is proper. The nature of the difference between morality and propriety can be more easily felt than expressed. For whatever propriety may be, it is manifested only when there is pre-existing moral rectitude.” 93-4 deoff. Cicero “Thus apparent expediency is outweighed when placed in the balance against moral rectitude.” B.3.de.off..114 Cicero “Those who fail to comprehend that theory do often, in their admiration for shrewd and clever men, take craftiness for wisdom. But they must be disabused of this error and their way of thinking must be wholly converted to the hope and conviction that it is only by moral character and righteousness, not by dishonesty and craftiness, that they may attain to the objects of their desires.” b2.10.de.off Note: For Christians the rectitude or moral right of the Supreme Judge is found in the good conscience of man supported by God’s revelation as found in Scripture. Declaration of 1776 “And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.” John of Salisbury says that if Israel had lived according to God’s justice, and walked faithfully in the commandments of the Lord, God would have freely humiliated their enemies, and healed their inflictions. 60 Note: The Founders relied on divine Providence which is the Hand of God operating in the human community. The Declaration of 1776 is compact between the American people and the God of Israel, and this compact was sanctified by victory in a eight year war. Declaration of 1776 “That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States…”
Plato in his magnum opus “Laws” frames an argument to atheist of his time against atheism that a belief in God is rational being a truth that is support by the complexity and mechanics of the universe which requires an Intelligent Creator. This is support by Psalms 19 which says the “heavens declare the glory of God.” Historically, empires from Babylon, Greece, Persians, Rome, and Anglo -America and native Indians, understood a Divine Being at work in the universe. A natural law principle states that the truth can be discoverable my the general consensus of a large majority, and if history is included into this consensus then reasonableness dictates that there is a God and to go against this is to be unreasonable and to incorporate such unreasonableness into the public counsels of government like Lenin, Stalin, and Moa did is an act of insanity.
Timothy Pickering 1787 “That states represented in the General Convention were each sovereign & independent.”