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Section 1 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
Section 2 This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
Chief Justice John Marshal “This great principle is that the Constitution and the laws made in pursuance thereof are supreme; that they control the Constitution and laws of the respective States, and cannot be controlled by them.” McC
Chief Justice John Marshal “The sovereignty of a State extends to everything which exists by its own authority or is introduced by its permission, but does it extend to those means which are employed by Congress to carry into execution powers conferred on that body by the people of the United States? We think it demonstrable that it does not. Those powers are not given by the people of a single State. They are given by the people of the United States, to a Government whose laws, made in pursuance of the Constitution, are declared to be supreme. Consequently, the people of a single State cannot confer a sovereignty which will extend over them.” McC
Federal Farmer 1787 “The federal constitution, the laws of congress made in pursuance of the constitution, and all treaties must have full force and effect in all parts of the United States; and all other laws, rights and constructions which stand in their way must yield: It is proper the national laws should be supreme, and superior to state or district laws; but then the national laws ought to yield to unalienable or fundamental rights – and national laws, made by a few men, should extend only to a few national objects.” 276.dc
Article VI Section 3 states “…both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.”
US Constitution says that American public servants are to take the “oath or affirmation.” The “oath” to who? The oath was not to the people but to God; this is the basic understanding of the common law. The no ‘religious test” requirement was added to the US Constitution in response to England’s religious test that allowed only those of the Anglican communion access to office of public trust in England – America did away with the “religious test” but it did not do away with religion faith. Religious faith is required to take the oath because the Oath is a binding of the conscience before God. George Washington said in his Farewell Address “Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice?” In fact George Washington and every president after that by laying their hands on the Bible when taking the presidential oath is acknowledging God and affirming their conscience before God.
In 1866, Bingham speech (author of the 14th Amendment) to Congress on the US Constitution’s “Oath and Affirmation” clause ”The oath, the most solemn compact which man can make with his Maker, was to bind the State Legislatures, executive officers, and judges to sacredly respect the Constitution and all the rights secured by it.”
Cicero “But when he comes to pronounce the verdict under oath, he should remember that he has God as his witness — that is, as I understand it, his own conscience, than which God himself has bestowed upon man nothing more divine.” 44
Cicero “an oath is an assurance backed by religious sanctity; and a solemn promise given, as before God as one’s witness, is to be sacredly.” B3.de.off.104
Grotius writes that oaths are not just a solemn transaction with between individuals but as a steadfast appeal to God, such an appeal to the supreme being demands the performance of an oath. 241
Many of the original state’s constitutions had a religious oath requiring a belief in God. This in order to uphold the Declaration of Independence that says all men are created, as a nations we under the “law of nature and nature’s God, Americans receives their inalienable rights from a Creator, and that our national rectitude is defined by the Supreme Judge of the world. The religious oath requirement is a republican principle, and a republican right of the states until 1961, when the Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Watkins , foolishly and violently, claimed it unconstitutional.
From Wikipedia “In the early 1960s, the Governor of Maryland appointed Roy Torcaso…as a notary republic. At the time, the Constitution of Marylandy required “a declaration of belief in the existence of God” in order for a person to hold “any office of profit or trust in this State.”
Quakers Act 1695 – AFFIRMATION
Whereas divers Dissenters co[m]monly called Quakers refusing to take an Oath in Courts of Justice and other Places are frequently imprisoned and their Estates sequestred by Processe of Contempt issuing out of such Courts to the Ruine of themselves and Families For Remedy thereof Be it enacted by the Kings most Excellent Majesty by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal & Co[m]mons in this present Parliament assembled and by the Authority of the same That from and after the Fourth Day of May which shall be in the Yeare of oure Lord One thousand six hundred ninety six every Quaker within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwick upon Tweed who shall be required upon any lawfull Occasion to take an Oath in any Case where by Law an Oath is required shall instead of the usual Forme be permitted to make his or her Solemne Affirmation or Declarac[i]on in these Words following. (vizt)
I A.B. do declare in the Presence of Almighty God the Witnesse of the Truth of what I say.
To have the Effect of an Oath.
Which said Solemne Affirmation or Declaration shall be adjudged and taken and is hereby enacted and declared to be of the same Force & Effect to all Intents and Purposes in all Courts of Justice and other Places where by Law an Oath is required within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwick upon Tweed as if such Quaker had taken an Oath in the usual Forme…”
Additionally, the subscription clause of the US Constitution declares Jesus as ‘our Lord’ and ties itself directly to the Declaration of 1776 by the word the “Twelfth;” – this makes that Declaration of 1776 a part of the US Constitution, and it declares that every American receive his or her inalienable rights from a Creator, and that our nation’s moral rectitude is from the Supreme Judge. Further evidence of the Constitution is the vehicle for implementing the principles of the Declaration of 1776 can be found in Bingham, author of the 14th amendment, speech to Congress relating to that amendment. The domestic enemies of the United States seek to undermine the pillars of republicanism, and it is the duty for every patriotic American to put down this insurrection. Article VIII to the US Constitution restores God as Creator and Supreme Judge according to it social compact the Declaration of 1776.
Explaining XI of the Treaty of Tripoli
“As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian religion as it has in itself no character of enmity [hatred] against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen [Muslims] and as the said States [America] have never entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mahometan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.”
(jb) Article XI does not say that the United State of America is not a Christian nation. What it says it that the United States of American is not founded on a Christian religion that has a character of enmity or vendetta toward the Muslim nations as European nations; Europe’s Christian nations have had a long history of conflict with Muslim nations, for example, Spain expelling the Moors in1492.
John Adams “The general principles on which the fathers achieved independence were. . . . the general principles of Christianity. . . . I will avow that I then believed, and now believe, that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God; and that those principles of liberty are as unalterable as human nature.”
Supreme Court “These, and many other matters which might be noticed, add a volume of unofficial declarations to the mass of organic utterances that this is a Christian nation.” 1892 Trinity v United States
Updegraph v. Commonwealth “Christianity, general Christianity, is, and always has been, a part of the common law of Pennsylvania; . . . not Christianity with an established church and tithes and spiritual courts, but Christianity with liberty of conscience to all men.”
“When a man vows a vow to Yahweh, or swears an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceeds out of his mouth.” Numb. 30:2
Vattel “The asservations (confirmations) used in entering into engagements are forms of expression intended to give the greater force to promises. Thus, kings promise in the most sacred manner, with good faith, solemnly, irrevocably, and engage their royal word. A man of honor thinks himself sufficiently bound by his word alone: yet these asservations are not useless, inasmuch as they tend to prove that the contracting parties form their engagements deliberately, and with a knowledge of what they are about. …the violation of such engagement becomes the more disgraceful.” 392